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Who Invented The Ballpoint Pen? Origins Of A Modern Writing Instrument

Bic Crystal

One of the more common questions people have about pens is, “who invented the ballpoint?” We honestly can’t say why this gets asked so often but it most certainly does, so let’s dive into it.

The Origins Of The Ballpoint Pen

It’s commonly accepted that a Hungarian man named László Bíró designed the first ballpoint pen and patented it in 1938. This is a popular belief and one backed by the simple fact that a ballpoint is called a “Biro” (pronounced bee-ro) in many places. Just look at Dyson’s famous pen, the Biro, as an example of this legacy playing out.

While László Bíró played a major part in the popularization of the ballpoint, it’s not perfectly accurate to call him its creator. He is more accurately described as the inventor of the modern ballpoint or the first commercially viable ballpoint, not the first one. Bíró displayed the a ballpoint pen at the 1931 Budapest International Fair but didn’t patent and fully release the design until 1938.

Harvard-trained lawyer John J. Loud is more accurately described as the inventor of the ballpoint. The Weymouth, Massachusetts-born Loud patented what can be only described as a ballpoint pen on October 30, 1888. Loud’s pen was never manufactured, so his claim to the invention of the ballpoint isn’t entirely concrete. Over 350 ballpoint pens were designed and developed in the years after Loud’s patent but none reached full production [0].

At the early stages of the ballpoint the problem wasn’t so much the design of the pen, as evidenced by the huge number of designed, but rather the formulation of the ink. A too-thin ink would leak out of the ball while an overly-thick ink would not flow through the ball or write well on paper.

Loud, who was working as a leather tanner, filed US Patent 392,046, claiming to have invented “certain new and useful improvements in pens.” The patent describes what is clearly a ballpoint design:

In the pen herein illustrated I have used three of these antifriction balls [K], which are of sufficient size when dropped into the tube [A] to dispose themselves evenly around the top of the sphere [L] and against the inner surface of the tube…

In this position the air-hole [c] is closed, and at the same time the ball [L] is firmly pressed outwardly and held against its seat in the contracted month [f] of the tube [A], the seat being accurately fitted to the ball. In this position no ink can escape from the pen. When once the marking-sphere [L], the antifriction balls [K] [K] [K], the rod [G] and its attachments, and the spring [S] are introduced in place, the cap [B] is screwed down and need rarely be removed, except for cleaning the pen.

The pen uses a design with multiple balls, which likely meant tolerance did not have to be as high as they are today. And then the writing tip, which Loud described as the “marking-sphere” is the ballpoint much as we know it today.

This design paved that way for future designs, which took all sorts of odd, wonderful forms. Just look at this March 1896 design from William N. Fessenden…

It was clear that the ball bearing was going to have a place in the future of writing, but no one knew if it would be Fessenden’s “Fountain Marking Pen” or another design that finally made what would become known as the ballpoint pen commercially viable.

Bíró And The Biro

In 1935 Hungarian newspaperman László (Ladislas) Bíró started work on his ballpoint design. He was used to working with thin newspaper and was often puncturing pages of newsprint, so he had a special need and clear experience with printing and ink. Newspaper ink in particular was quick-drying which was a key insight, especially when combined with a ball writing tip and a gravity-fed ink system.

The early Bíró designs were on the right track but had problems. Being gravity-fed the pens needed to be quite upright to work. Also ink was still not flowing smoothly, instead being prone to clumping. Bíró, now working with his brother and having moved to Argentina (around 1943), came up with a new design that used capillary action to pull the ink from the reservoir into the tip. A slightly textured ball tip help pull in and put down ink as well. A new patent was filed for the “Birome, ” which reflected the involvement of Juan Jorge Meyne in the development of the new pen design.

Bic Crystal, 1951 Ad, Courtesy of Bic

As this point the design was coming along but it wasn’t a commercial hit yet. The usefulness of the ballpoint was starting to be recognized, specifically in situations like air travel, where pilots and other fliers had problems with fountain pens leaking because of air pressure changes.

The single largest development wasn’t actually by the Bíró brothers, but by Marcel Bich. Bich purchased the rights to the ballpoint from Bíró  for $2 million in December 1950 and used the patent to found Bic. By 1953 the ballpoint was in full production and the company was known as Societe Bic.[1][2] This is is the same company that still exists today and sells millions of ballpoints a day. In 1945 Bich had started producing fountain pens and pencil components out in the town of Clichy, outside of Paris, but the ballpoint was the start of the company’s true success.

The Bic Cristal was first released in 1950 and remains one of the company’s top sells today.

Sources

0. Encyclopedia of Modern Everyday Inventions, 2003. David J. Cole, Eve B. Cole, Fred Schroeder
1. Marcel Bich, 79, Dies, 1994. Wolfgang Saxon
2. Bic History